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  • Writer's pictureLinda Varga

Can a Trustee Be a Beneficiary of a Trust in California?

Can a Trustee Be a Beneficiary of a Trust in California?

Trusts are a popular estate planning tool, allowing for the efficient management and distribution of assets according to the grantor’s wishes. In California, as in many other states, the roles and responsibilities within a trust can sometimes overlap, leading to questions about potential conflicts of interest. One common query is whether a trustee can also be a beneficiary of the trust they manage. The short answer is yes, but there are important considerations to keep in mind.

Understanding the Roles: Trustee and Beneficiary

To understand how one person can serve as both a trustee and a beneficiary, it’s important to distinguish between the two roles:

  1. Trustee: A trustee is responsible for managing the trust assets according to the terms set forth in the trust document. They must act in the best interests of the beneficiaries and adhere to fiduciary duties, including the duty of loyalty, duty of care, and duty to inform and account.

  2. Beneficiary: A beneficiary is an individual or entity entitled to receive benefits from the trust, such as income or principal distributions.

Trustee as Beneficiary: Legal and Practical Considerations

In California, it is legally permissible for the same person to serve as both trustee and beneficiary. This situation often arises in family trusts or revocable living trusts, where the grantor (the person who creates the trust) names themselves as both trustee and primary beneficiary during their lifetime.

However, when a trustee is also a beneficiary, it introduces potential conflicts of interest. Here’s what you need to know:

1. Duty of Loyalty

The duty of loyalty requires the trustee to act solely in the best interests of the beneficiaries. When a trustee is also a beneficiary, they must balance their personal interests with their fiduciary responsibilities. This can be challenging, particularly when decisions about distributions or investments could benefit them personally.

2. Impartiality

A trustee must act impartially when there are multiple beneficiaries, considering the interests of all parties fairly. If a trustee is also a beneficiary, they must be careful to avoid favoritism and ensure that their actions do not unfairly disadvantage other beneficiaries.

3. Transparency and Accountability

Trustees must maintain transparency and provide accurate accounting to all beneficiaries. This duty helps to mitigate potential conflicts of interest by ensuring that all actions taken by the trustee are documented and can be scrutinized by other beneficiaries.

Safeguards and Best Practices

To address potential conflicts of interest when a trustee is also a beneficiary, several safeguards and best practices can be implemented:

1. Clear Trust Terms

The trust document should clearly outline the trustee’s powers and responsibilities, including provisions for how conflicts of interest should be handled. This can help prevent misunderstandings and disputes among beneficiaries.

2. Co-Trustees

Appointing a co-trustee or an independent trustee can provide an additional layer of oversight and help ensure that decisions are made impartially. This is particularly useful in complex trusts or when the trust has multiple beneficiaries with differing interests.

3. Regular Communication

Maintaining open lines of communication with all beneficiaries is crucial. Regular updates and transparent accounting can help build trust and prevent potential conflicts from escalating.

4. Professional Advice

Trustees, especially those who are also beneficiaries, should seek professional advice from attorneys, accountants, or financial advisors. This can help them navigate their fiduciary duties and make informed decisions that comply with the law and the terms of the trust.


In California, it is entirely permissible for a trustee to also be a beneficiary of a trust. However, this dual role comes with heightened responsibilities and potential conflicts of interest. By adhering to their fiduciary duties, maintaining transparency, and seeking professional advice, trustees can effectively manage these challenges and fulfill their obligations to all beneficiaries. Ensuring that the trust document is clear and comprehensive, and considering the appointment of co-trustees or independent trustees, can further safeguard the interests of all parties involved.



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